This is cool, and kind of dangerous too. When guns were packed with gunpowder one of the problems was knowing how much gunpowder to put in. So the eprouvette was used to test the strength of gunpowder. It went out of general use by the middle of the 19th century. A carefully weighed quantity of powder was placed inside it, followed by a standard weight shot. The charge was fired and the distance the shot flew was measured and compared to the expected standard distance. So then you knew how much to load your gun with.
It’s a pretty basic device, but I saw a very elaborate one at the Guildhall created by master guildsmen. It was as much an attractive object as a useful tool.